Intramedullary Tumours- glioma, ependymoma, haemangioblastoma
- Ependymoma- the commonest intramedullary tumour in adults
- Astrocytoma- a glial tumour which is the commonest intramedullary tumour in children. Approximately 75% are diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma (WHO grade II). These may upgrade to more agressive types over time.
- Haemangioblastoma- 30% of patients who present with an intramedullary haemangioblastoma will have Von Hippel-Lindau disease.
- Metastasis- spread of a primary cancer to the spinal cord is a rare and late development affecting approximately 5% of patients with a disseminated malignancy. It is an extremely rare first presentation of a cancer.
Intradural Extramedullary Tumours- Schwannoma, Neurofibroma
Neurofibromastosis and Schwannomatosis
- Discolouration in the skin (cafe au lait spots) or freckling in the armpit
- Cutaneous and subcutaneous benign masses called neurofibroma
- Benign nerve sheath tumours on nerves arising from the spinal cord and nerves elsewhere in the body
- Malignant nerve sheath tumours (8-13% lifetime risk in patients with NF1)
- Benign hamartomas in the iris (Lisch Nodules)
- Glioma particularly of the optic pathways in the brain
- Bone dysplasias
- Peripheral neuropathy